Click on a heading for resources to help you learn more about that topic. * denotes that the resource links to an external website

Water Cycle

Water Cycle Experiment: Precipitation

Water Cycle Experiment: Infiltration

Water Cycle Experiment: Evaporation

Water Cycle Experiment: Transpiration

Water Cycle Experiment: Condensation

All About Water / Water Quiz

What Is A Flood?

Different Types of Flooding Activity

River/Canal Flooding Animation

Coastal Flooding Animation

Surface Water Flooding Animation

Sewer Flooding Animation

Groundwater Flooding Animation

Reservoir Flooding

Impacts Of Flooding

What Effect Would a Flood Have on You? Activity

Flooding Newspaper Headlines Activity

Write a Flooding News Report Activity

Create a Storm Hydrograph for a Flood Event Activity

Make a Flooding Awareness Poster Activity

Annual Rainfall/Impacts Activity

Flood Risk Management

Prepare a Flood Kit Activity

Prepare A Flood Plan Activity *

Prepare Your Property Activity *

Flood Response Activity

The Flood Game 7-11 years (KS2) *

Stop Disasters Simulation Game 11+ (KS3/4) *

Design a SUDS Activity

Climate Change

CoastWatch Episode 1: Sefton's Coastal Processes *

CoastWatch Episode 2: Climate Change *

CoastWatch Episode 3: Sea Level Rise and Increased Storminess *

CoastWatch Episode 4: Warmer, Wetter Winters, and Hotter Drier Summers *

CoastWatch Episode 5: Mitigation *

CoastWatch Episode 6: Adaptation *

Climate Change Investigation

PowerDown Toolkit (KS3)

Climate4Classrooms Education Pack (KS3/4)

Word Description
Adaptation An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected coastal change and climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.
Alleviation The act of reducing something unpleasant such as a flood.
Aquifer A layer of rock or sand that can absorb or hold water.
Arable Used or suitable for growing crops.
Assets Anything valuable or useful.
Biodiversity Action Plan An internationally recognised plan that describes biological resources (often threatened species and habitats) and plans how to conserve them.
Blockage Something that restricts movement through a pipe or channel.
Breach A hole caused by something forcing its way through i.e. water through a sea wall.
Capacity The amount that something can contain or be held at.
Catchment area Drainage area, the area of land that drains rainfall into a river, lake or sea.
Category 1 responder Core responders, they include the usual "blue-light" emergency services as well as others.
Chart datum A level so low that the tide will not frequently fall below it.
Climate change The change in average conditions of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface over a long period of time.
Coastal flooding Occurs when coastal defences are unable to contain the normal predicted high tides that can cause flooding, usually when a high tide combines with a storm surge (created by high winds or very low atmospheric pressure).
Conservation Protection, preservation and careful management of natural resources and of the environment.
Containment wall A wall built to support or prevent the advance of a mass of earth or water.
Culvert A covered structure under a road, embankment etc. to direct the flow of water.
Degrade Break down or deteriorate chemically.
Discharge The amount of water transported in a certain amount of time for example in a river.
Drain A drain is a pipe taking foul or surface water flows from one property.
Drainage basin Drainage area, the area of land that drains rainfall into a river, lake or sea.
Drainage system/ drainage network A system of watercourses or drains used to carry excess water.
Drainpipe A pipe that carries off rainwater, waste water or sewage to or through drains.
Dynamic Characterized by constant change, activity or progress.
Embankment A mound of earth or stone built to hold back water.
Estuary Part of the mouth or lower course of a river in which the river's current meets the sea's tide.
Faecal coliforms These live in the digestive tracks of warm-blooded animals, and are excreted in the faeces. Although most of these bacteria are not harmful and are part of the normal digestive system, some are capable of producing disease in humans.
Flood Any occasion when water covers land that is usually dry.
Flood air brick A specialist replacement brick that replaces the original. This automatically shuts air vents when water enters so to preventing water coming through the holes. Once water subsides the air vents open again.
Flood door Door that has a flood resistant seal that when closed will prevent flood water from entering the property through a doorway.
Flood resilient Minimising the damage of a flood if it does happen.
Flood resistant Preventing flooding from happening.
Flood risk The combination of the probability of a flood and of the potential adverse consequences associated with a flood for communities, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity.
Floodgate Floodgates are adjustable gates used to control water flow in flood barriers, reservoirs, rivers, streams, or levee systems.
Floodplain The generally flat area adjacent to a watercourse or the sea where water flows in time of flood or would flow but for the presence of flood defences.
Green water Sea water, spray and foam during stormy conditions.
Groundwater Water below the surface of the ground.
Gully Channel made for water: a gutter, open drain or other artificial channel for water, especially one at a roadside.
Habitat The natural home of a plant or animal.
Hydraulic modelling A computer model used to show how precipitation contributes to the flow of a river or stream.
Hydrology The study of water and its properties, including its distribution and movement in and through the land areas of the earth.
Infrastructure The basic physical systems of a country's or community's population, including roads, utilities, water and sewage.
Intertidal Relating to the region between the high tide mark and the low tide mark.
Inundation To flood; cover or overspread with water.
Low pressure A condition of the atmosphere in which the pressure is below average.
Low-lying Describes land that is at or near the level of the sea.
Manhole A hole, usually with a cover, through which a person may enter a sewer, boiler, drain, or similar structure.
Mitigation Human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks (i.e. trees) of greenhouse gases.
Non return valve A valve that allows fluid to flow through it in one direction only.
Outfall The outlet of a sewer, drain, or stream, especially where it empties into a larger body of water.
Outflow The act or process of flowing out or away such as the tide flowing out.
Overtop To extend or rise over or beyond the top of.
Peat A brown material consisting of partly decomposed vegetable matter forming a deposit on acidic, boggy, ground.
Penstock A sluice for controlling or directing the flow of water.
Permeable A material which allows liquids or gases to pass through it.
Pipework Pipes making up a network.
Pollutant A substance that pollutes something e.g. a chemical or waste product contaminating the air, soil or water.
Ponding/pooling The excessive accumulation of water in low-lying areas that remains after 48 hours after the end of rainfall under conditions conducive to drying.
Public or Main sewer A public or main sewer is part of the network of publicly owned foul or surface water drainage systems. These systems are managed by the sewerage undertaker and accept the flows from the smaller private drains.
Pump Device for moving liquid or gas.
Pumping station Facilities including pumps and equipment for pumping fluids from one place to another.
Raised bank Sloping or raised land often found alongside a river which builds up when the river floods and dumps its load from eroded material.
Reservoir A natural or artificial pond or lake used for the storage and regulation of water.
Risk Likelihood of an event occurring multiplied by the impacts of that event.
Run off A proportion of rainfall which is not absorbed into the ground and finds its way into watercourses, eventually flowing to the sea/ocean.
Sandbag A sealed bag full of sand used in building defences.
Scheme A systematic plan of action.
Sea The salt waters that cover the greater part of the earth's surface.
Sealant A substance used to seal something e.g. by filling gaps or making a surface non-porous.
Sediment Matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid.
Sewage The effluent or water that passes through the sewer or drain.
Sewer A sewer is a pipe taking foul or surface water flows from two or more properties.
Sewerage The system or network of pipes that form the sewer connections from head to discharge at the treatment works or other final outfall.
Strategy A plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.
Subsoil The soil lying immediately under the surface soil.
SuDS Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems.
Sump A pit or hollow in which liquid collects.
Surcharge When flows cannot be contained within the piped system then the excess flows will escape (surcharge) through the nearest low or weakest point upstream of the restriction.
Surface water Water that has not penetrated much below the surface of the ground.
Sustainable Able to be maintained at a certain rate or level.
Tidal exchange The force that keeps the tidal inlet open to the sea, by transporting sediments (such as sand) from the catchment into the ocean.
Tributary A stream that flows to a larger stream or other body of water.
Upstream In a direction opposite to that of a stream's current.
Washland scheme An area of land adjoining a river or stream that floods from the positive act of directing floodwaters onto it as part of a flood defence measure.
Water body Is any significant accumulation of water.
Water quality Refers to the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water.
Water table The level below which the ground is completely saturated with water.
Watercourse A channel (natural or artificial) along which water flows.
Wetland A low-lying area of land that is saturated with moisture.